CHAPTER VI
SCORING AND GRADING OF TEST LEARNING OUTCOMES
The assessment process is a process of comparing the scores obtained by each student with the reference used (PAN and LAP) which results in the form of value. Scoring is giving the numbers for person's achievement after doing a specific task. Grading is the process of comparing the measurement results with as score of "reference used" that the results form of value.
A. Objective test scoring
1. Multiple choice tests: includes a multiplechoice test is complete the four option, multiplechoice associations, relationships between things. Scoring this test is the way items were answered correct given a score of 1 (one), and that wrong was given a score of 0 (zero). To calculate the final score of a multiple choice test used the formula :
S = Total Score
R = Total of correct answers
W= Total of wrong answers
n = Total of options
2. Matching tests: to assess the matching test is calculated from items that answered sure enough, the formula is:
S = Total Score
R = Total of correct answers
3. Fill in : The way to test scoring this form there are two first opinion said that the maximum score in any form of fill in the same as an existing Total of entries the test, if a test fill in the form there are 10 icons, and each icon contains one, two, three contents, then the way votes is calculated according to Total of contents that exist in all items.
The second opinion said that the maximum score is calculated according to Total of the item. Each item is assessed one, although Total of the contents are not as much. Scoring formula for the short answer is:
S = Total Score
R = Total of correct answers
Examples of using the scoring objective tests
Suppose that made of physical test of 20 multiple choice items with four choices, 10 fill in items, and match 10 items. A student named Budi can answer the physics question is as follows:
Multiple choice
Fill in
Matching
correct
wrong
empty
correct
wrong
empty
correct
wrong
empty
14
4
2
8
1
1
6
4

What is the score Budi?
Answer:
Multiple choices:
Fill in:
Matching:
So, total of Budi’s score is S1 + S2 + S3 = 12,67 + 8 + 6 = 26,67
If in doing multiple choice test items that are not answered (blank), then the items does not count towards scoring.
B. Essay test scoring
There are two methods that can be used to provide scores on essay tests, 1) The method of analysis is a way scoring the prepare a model answer which answers are in the analysis into separate parts, and set each section provided certain score, after the model answers composed, each student's answers compared the model answers and were scored according to the level of truth. 2) The method sorter is a way to explore how students answer read as a whole. Once a response is complete, the answers are placed in a pile that are classified into piles excellent, good, moderate, less, less so. Afterwards, each pile settled in accordance the classification.
Scoring steps in essay tests are:
a. Establish exactly what factors should be measured.
b. Number by the number examined using the answer key.
c. To overcome the halo effect (the influence of subjective factors).
1) Before examination, the student's name is replaced with the code.
2) Avoid the influence of external factors, such as writing, hygiene.
d. Scoring by two examiners for each student to a separate way then averaged.
The actual techniques employed in scoring essay tests are:
a. The percentage is a matter of assigning weights to a question by comparing it to another matter in the same test device. The percentage depends on the depth of the material, wide scope of materials, essentiality, and the level of difficulty of the questions.
b. Scoring scale is used, for example, a scale of 10 or 100 scales.
The formula used for calculating score items (SBS) is:
a SBS = Question scoring
SBS = x c a = raw scores of each student items
b b = maximum raw score questions
c = percentage of question
After be obtained SBS, it can be calculated a total score range of items for a total score of students in a series of tests concerned question using the formula:
STS = Σ SBS
STS = Total score
No.
(a)
(b)
( c )
SBS
1
30
60
40
20
2
20
40
35
17,5
3
10
20
10
5
4
20
20
15
15
Total
80
140
100
57,5
So the total score of Budi is 57.5
C. The principles of Grading Learning outcomes
1. Assessment shall be based on the results of a comprehensive measurement of the assessment is based on the sample means that quite a lot of achievements, both kind and type.
2. We must differentiate between scoring and grading.
3. It should be clear that the approach used PAP or PAN.
4. Grading activities shall form an integral part of the learning process.
5. Assessment should be comparable means that assessment must be conducted fairly to all score.
6. Scoring system shall be used obviously for students and teachers.
D. Learning Outcomes Assessment Procedure.
1. Procedure which does not distinguish between the phases of measurement to assessment phase.
2. Assessment procedures to rank scores in the form of distribution tables. With the use of the rank distribution procedures, teacher assessment and applying two approaches that is PAN for competence in the group and the PAP in terms of the expected minimal mastery according to the capacity of each class.
3. Assessment procedures using the percentage (%). This procedure is widely used because it is simple and practical. Assessment here, associated to rating scale 010 or 0100, to percentage is directly transformed into value.
4. Procedures that use more complex statistical technique called standardization and normalization procedure.
E. Examples of the determination of final score
1. To obtain the final value, need to be taken into account test scores of formative and summative tests to the formula:
F1 + F2 + ……..Fn
+ 2 S
n
NA =
3
Description :
NA = Final Score
F = Final Score of formative tests (repeated daily)
S = Final Score summative tests (general tests)
So the final value to be obtained from the average of formative tests, given the weight of one, summed to summative test scores is percentages two and then divided by three.
2. The final value be obtained from the value of the task, the value of daily tests and general test scores with 2, 3, and 5 by the formula:
2T + 3H + 5U
NA =
10
Description:
NA = Final Score
H = daily test Score (the average)
T = Score assignments
U = Score general tests
3. The final value for STTB obtained from the average value of daily tests (given weight 1) and the value of EBTA given weight 2, then divided by 3, if it is written in the formula being:
Σ H
NA = + 2 E
3
Description
NA = final score
H = value of daily tests
E = Value of EBTA
SCORING AND GRADING OF TEST LEARNING OUTCOMES
The assessment process is a process of comparing the scores obtained by each student with the reference used (PAN and LAP) which results in the form of value. Scoring is giving the numbers for person's achievement after doing a specific task. Grading is the process of comparing the measurement results with as score of "reference used" that the results form of value.
A. Objective test scoring
1. Multiple choice tests: includes a multiplechoice test is complete the four option, multiplechoice associations, relationships between things. Scoring this test is the way items were answered correct given a score of 1 (one), and that wrong was given a score of 0 (zero). To calculate the final score of a multiple choice test used the formula :
S = Total Score
R = Total of correct answers
W= Total of wrong answers
n = Total of options
2. Matching tests: to assess the matching test is calculated from items that answered sure enough, the formula is:
S = Total Score
R = Total of correct answers
3. Fill in : The way to test scoring this form there are two first opinion said that the maximum score in any form of fill in the same as an existing Total of entries the test, if a test fill in the form there are 10 icons, and each icon contains one, two, three contents, then the way votes is calculated according to Total of contents that exist in all items.
The second opinion said that the maximum score is calculated according to Total of the item. Each item is assessed one, although Total of the contents are not as much. Scoring formula for the short answer is:
S = Total Score
R = Total of correct answers
Examples of using the scoring objective tests
Suppose that made of physical test of 20 multiple choice items with four choices, 10 fill in items, and match 10 items. A student named Budi can answer the physics question is as follows:
Multiple choice
Fill in
Matching
correct
wrong
empty
correct
wrong
empty
correct
wrong
empty
14
4
2
8
1
1
6
4

What is the score Budi?
Answer:
Multiple choices:
Fill in:
Matching:
So, total of Budi’s score is S1 + S2 + S3 = 12,67 + 8 + 6 = 26,67
If in doing multiple choice test items that are not answered (blank), then the items does not count towards scoring.
B. Essay test scoring
There are two methods that can be used to provide scores on essay tests, 1) The method of analysis is a way scoring the prepare a model answer which answers are in the analysis into separate parts, and set each section provided certain score, after the model answers composed, each student's answers compared the model answers and were scored according to the level of truth. 2) The method sorter is a way to explore how students answer read as a whole. Once a response is complete, the answers are placed in a pile that are classified into piles excellent, good, moderate, less, less so. Afterwards, each pile settled in accordance the classification.
Scoring steps in essay tests are:
a. Establish exactly what factors should be measured.
b. Number by the number examined using the answer key.
c. To overcome the halo effect (the influence of subjective factors).
1) Before examination, the student's name is replaced with the code.
2) Avoid the influence of external factors, such as writing, hygiene.
d. Scoring by two examiners for each student to a separate way then averaged.
The actual techniques employed in scoring essay tests are:
a. The percentage is a matter of assigning weights to a question by comparing it to another matter in the same test device. The percentage depends on the depth of the material, wide scope of materials, essentiality, and the level of difficulty of the questions.
b. Scoring scale is used, for example, a scale of 10 or 100 scales.
The formula used for calculating score items (SBS) is:
a SBS = Question scoring
SBS = x c a = raw scores of each student items
b b = maximum raw score questions
c = percentage of question
After be obtained SBS, it can be calculated a total score range of items for a total score of students in a series of tests concerned question using the formula:
STS = Σ SBS
STS = Total score
No.
(a)
(b)
( c )
SBS
1
30
60
40
20
2
20
40
35
17,5
3
10
20
10
5
4
20
20
15
15
Total
80
140
100
57,5
So the total score of Budi is 57.5
C. The principles of Grading Learning outcomes
1. Assessment shall be based on the results of a comprehensive measurement of the assessment is based on the sample means that quite a lot of achievements, both kind and type.
2. We must differentiate between scoring and grading.
3. It should be clear that the approach used PAP or PAN.
4. Grading activities shall form an integral part of the learning process.
5. Assessment should be comparable means that assessment must be conducted fairly to all score.
6. Scoring system shall be used obviously for students and teachers.
D. Learning Outcomes Assessment Procedure.
1. Procedure which does not distinguish between the phases of measurement to assessment phase.
2. Assessment procedures to rank scores in the form of distribution tables. With the use of the rank distribution procedures, teacher assessment and applying two approaches that is PAN for competence in the group and the PAP in terms of the expected minimal mastery according to the capacity of each class.
3. Assessment procedures using the percentage (%). This procedure is widely used because it is simple and practical. Assessment here, associated to rating scale 010 or 0100, to percentage is directly transformed into value.
4. Procedures that use more complex statistical technique called standardization and normalization procedure.
E. Examples of the determination of final score
1. To obtain the final value, need to be taken into account test scores of formative and summative tests to the formula:
F1 + F2 + ……..Fn
+ 2 S
n
NA =
3
Description :
NA = Final Score
F = Final Score of formative tests (repeated daily)
S = Final Score summative tests (general tests)
So the final value to be obtained from the average of formative tests, given the weight of one, summed to summative test scores is percentages two and then divided by three.
2. The final value be obtained from the value of the task, the value of daily tests and general test scores with 2, 3, and 5 by the formula:
2T + 3H + 5U
NA =
10
Description:
NA = Final Score
H = daily test Score (the average)
T = Score assignments
U = Score general tests
3. The final value for STTB obtained from the average value of daily tests (given weight 1) and the value of EBTA given weight 2, then divided by 3, if it is written in the formula being:
Σ H
NA = + 2 E
3
Description
NA = final score
H = value of daily tests
E = Value of EBTA